About Turkey

About Turkey


Official Name                       :The Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)
Founder                                : Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK ( 1881-1938 )
Capital                                  : ANKARA
Population                            : 70,586,256 (31.Aralık.2007)
Language                              : Turkish (uses Latin Alphabet)
Currency                               : Turkish Lira (TL)
Electricity                              : 220 volts a. c. all over Turkey
Weights and Measures         : Metric and Kilo system
Flag                                       : Red background with a white crescent and star in the middle

Being like a bridge between east and west Turkey is the country where three continents comes the closest –Asia-Europe-Africa.

The surface area of Turkey including the lakes is 814,578 km² / 314,503 sq miles. Out of the total land, 97% is in Asia and this part is called Anatolia or Asia Minor; 3% is in Europe which is called Thrace. Turkey is rectangular in shape with a length of 1,660 km / 1,031 miles and a width of 550 km / 341 miles. The neighbor countries are Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq and Syria in east and Greece and Bulgaria in west.
It is a big peninsula surrounded with Black Sea in north, The Aegean Sea in west and The Mediterranean Sea in south.

The altitude in Turkey goes higher from west to east. In coastline and in west it starts with the sea level and only couple of hundred meters higher than the sea level, in central part it is about 1000 meters higher than the sea level and in east nearly about 2000 meters. The highest point in Turkey is Mount Ağrı -5137m (known as Ararat where the Noah’s Ark was supposed to be landed).

Because of its location there are different types of climates in Turkey. In coast line winters are mild and summers are moderately hot, the inland areas experience extremes of temperature. The hot summers have high daytime temperatures with generally cool nights and the cold winters have limited precipitation with frost occurring on more than 100 days during the year.

In the Mediterranean, Aegean and Southern Marmara regions, the general Mediterranean climate is dominant; summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and rainy. Frosts are rare and snowfall is almost unknown. On the Northern coast of the Marmara Sea, the temperatures are lower. The Black Sea Region, enjoys mild winters and a fair amount of rainfall throughout the year. In Central Anatolia, a typical plateau climate prevails where the summers are hot with minimum precipitation, and winters are cold with heavy and lasting snows. Eastern Anatolia summers are hot and extremely dry, winters are bitterly cold. Spring and autumn are both subject to sudden hot and cold spells.


Geographical Regions:
Turkey is generally divided into seven regions: the Black Sea region, the Marmara region, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, the East and Southeast Anatolia regions.
The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a narrow but long belt. The land of this region is approximately 1/6 of Turkey's total land area.

The Marmara region covers the area encircling the Sea of Marmara includes the entire European part of Turkey, as well as the northwest of the Anatolian plain. Whilst the region is the smallest of the regions of Turkey after the Southeast Anatolia region, it has the highest population density of all the regions.

The most important peak in the region is Uludag (2,543 metres), at the same time it is a major winter sports and tourist centre. In the Anatolian part of the region there are fertile plains running from east to west.

The Aegean region extends from the Aegean coast to the inner parts of western Anatolia. There are significant differences between the coastal areas and those inland, in terms of both geographical features and economic and social aspects.

In general, the mountains in the region fall perpendicularly into the sea and the plains run from east to west. The plains through which Gediz, Kucuk Menderes and Bakircay rivers flow carry the same names as these rivers.

In the Mediterranean region, located in the south of Turkey, the western and central Taurus Mountains rise up closely behind the coastline. The Amanos mountain range is also in the area.

The Central Anatolian region is exactly in the middle of Turkey and gives the appearance of being less mountainous compared with the other regions. The main peaks of the region are Karadag, Karacadag, Hasandag and Erciyes (3.917 metres).

The Eastern Anatolia region is Turkey's largest and highest region. About three fourths of it is at an altitude of 1,500-2,000 metres. Eastern Anatolia is composed of individual mountains as well as of whole mountain ranges with vast plateaus and plains.

The mountains: There are numerous inactive volcanoes in the region including Nemrut, Suphan, Tendurek and Turkey's highest peak, Mount Agri (Ararat), which is 5,165 metres high.

At the same time, several plains extend along the course of the River Murat, a tributary of the Firat (Euphrates). These are the plains of Malazgirt, Mus, Capakcur, Uluova and Malatya.

The Southeast Anatolia region is notable for the uniformity of its landscape, although the eastern part of the region is comparatively more uneven than its western areas.

Anatolia has always been invaded and migrated because of its location, climate and fertile land. As people moved in Anatolia they moved their culture as well that is the reason why it is called “the cradle of civilization”.

The Paleolithic Age (600000-10000 BC)
This is the time when people were just hunters and collectors. They used flint to make hand-axes, scrapers, cutters and chisels. People lived in caves. The most known settlements from this period in Anatolia are Yarımburgaz near Istanbul and Karain near Antalya.

The Neolithic Age (8000-5500 BC)
People started to cultivate plants and domesticate animals. The figure of mother goddess was seen. Since people started agriculture the town life also started. People made tools for farming, made clay pottery and textile products. The most known settlements for this period are Hacılar near Burdur and Çatalhöyük near Konya.

The Chalcolithic Age (5500-3000 BC)
People started to use copper, made brick houses, vessels of clay, stone, wood, weapon of bone or flint. The figure of mother goddess continued. People made sculptures and paintings. Canhasan, Beycesultan, Alişar, Alacahöyük are the settlements from this period.

The Bronze Age (3000-1200 BC)
People started to use copper which was the mixture of copper and tin. Gold, silver and electron (gold and silver) used for tools. Hittites (1750-1200 BC) and Assyrian Traders were in Anatolia during this age. Jewelry, bull and stag statuettes, ritual standards, sun dials, musical instruments were found in Alacahöyük which a popular settlement in this age.

Iron Age (1200-700 BC)
Iron started to be used to make weapons and tools. Neo-Hittites, Urartians, Phyrigians and Ionians were in Anatolia in this age.

The Dark Age (700-490 BC)
This is a dark age for eastern Anatolia because civilization passed from east to west. Lydians, Carians, Ionians were in western Anatolia during this period.

In 5th century BC Persians (554-383 BC) invaded Anatolia and divided it into satrapies which are like the states in US. It was Alexander The Great (356-323 BC) who defeated the Persians and the Hellenistic Age (300 -133 BC) started in Anatolia. In 1st century BC Roman Age (133- 395 AD) started and especially the cities on the western corner lived their golden ages during the reign of Romans. As Roman Empire divided into two parts Anatolia was the eastern Rome (Byzantine Age 395-1071 AD). In 1071 with the MAzkiert War the first Turkish nation Seljuks invaded the land. The Crusades (first 1096-1099/ fourth 1202/1204) also affected the land. The Ottomans (1299-1922) ruled the land for about seven hundred years, but after the WW1 they lost big part of their land and the country was under the control of different nations (British, Greek, French) Then in 1919 Atatürk sstarted an independence war for the people living on the land. It went on till 1922. In the same year the Ottoman Empire ended. In 1923 Atatürk declared the country as The republic of Türkiye.


The population of Turkey is estimated around 75 million. Density of the population lives in western part of the country because of higher employment. Cities like Istanbul (15 mil), Ankara (6 mil), Izmir (3,5 mil) are the biggest. Turkey has a very young population: nearly half of the population is under the age of 30 and the life expectancy is 70.

Turkish is the native tongue of 90 percent of the population in Turkey. Turks had used numerous written tongues since 8th century but the most common alphabets used by the Turks are the Kök Turk, Uygur, Arabic and Latin alphabets.

After the declaration of republic and the completion of the national unification, especially between 1923-1928 years, the problem of the alphabet is discussed and debated. In order to carry the new Turkish Republic to the modern civilization level, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic had believed to use the Western Culture and Civilization and therefore with this aim Latin letters which are rearranged in a manner that they are convenient to the vocal structure of the Turkish language are accepted instead of the Arabic alphabet which was currently in use in 1928.

The Historic development of Turkish Language as a written tongue:
Ancient Turkish (VI - X Century) : The language used in Uygur tongue written documents with the Orhon and Yenisey Inscriptions.

Intermediate Turkish (XI - XV Century) : This language certifies the period between the first Islamic written document and completion of the formation of the new written Turkish dialects. (Anatolian Turkish - Azerbaijani Turkish - Turkoman Turkish)

New Turkish (XV - XX Century) : (Uzbek language - Kipchak Language)

In Anatolia, a written language called Ottoman language which was developed from Oguz language was used during this period.

Modern Turkish (XX Century) : The modern Turkish includes the Turkish dialects used in various locations all around the world in XX. Century. In this century, Turkey Turkish language is used in Anatolia.

Turkish is located among the ending languages in the world tongue classification. The root of the words are not altered while the word structure and declination. The declinations and building of the words are executed by the affixes. The order of the words and affixes are as "root + bu
ilding affix + declination affix" .

There are 29 letters in Turkish language in the Republic period Latin letters. ç, ð, ý, ö, þ letters are peculiar only to Turkish alphabet.

Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides, by the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean in the south and the Aegean Sea in the west. In the northwest there is also an important internal sea, the Sea of Marmara, between the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus - important waterways that connect the Black Sea with the rest of the world.

The mountains in the Black Sea region run parallel to the coastline and the coasts are fairly smooth without too many indentations or projections. The Black Sea coastline in Turkey is 1,595 kilometers and the salinity of the sea is 17%.

The Mediterranean coastline runs for 1,577 kilometers and here too the mountain ranges are parallel to the coastline. The salinity level of the Mediterranean is about double that of the Black Sea.

Although the Aegean coastline is a continuation of the Mediterranean coast it is quite irregular because the mountains in the area are perpendicular to the Aegean Sea. As a result, the Aegean Sea coast is over 2,800 kilometers long. The coastline faces many islands.

The Marmara Sea is located totally within national boundaries and occupies an area of 11,350 square kilometres. The coastline of the Marmara Sea is over 1,000 kilometers long; it is connected to the Black Sea through the Bosphorus and to the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles.

Most of the rivers of Turkey flow into the seas surrounding the country. The Firat (Euphrates) and Dicle (Tigris) join together in Iraq and flow into the Persian Gulf. Turkey's longest rivers, the Kizilirmak, Yesilirmak and Sakarya, flow into the Black Sea. The Susurluk, Biga, and Gonen pour into the Sea of Marmara, the Gediz, Kucuk Menderes, Buyuk Menderes and Meric into the Aegean, and the Seyhan, Ceyhan and Goksu into the Mediterranean.

In terms of numbers of lakes, the Eastern Anatolian region is the richest. It contains Turkey's largest, Lake Van (3.713 square kilometres), and the lakes of Ercek, Cildir and Hazar. There are also many lakes in the Taurus mountains area: the Beysehir and Egirdir lakes, and the lakes that contain bitter waters like the Burdur and Acigoller lakes. Around the Sea of Marmara are the lakes of Sapanca, Iznik, Ulubat, Manyas, Terkos, Kucukcekmece and Buyukcekmece.

In Central Anatolia is the second largest lake in Turkey: Tuzgolu. This lake is shallow and very salty. The lakes of Aksehir and Eber are also located in this region. As a result of the construction of dams during the past thirty years, several large dam lakes have come into existence. Together with the Ataturk Dam lake which started to collect water in January 1990, the following are good examples: Keban, Karakaya, Altinkaya, Adiguzel, Kilickaya, Karacaoren, Menzelet, Kapulukaya, Hirfanli, Sariyar and Demirkopru.

The Climate:
Although Turkey is situated in a geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence in particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts cause significant differences in climatic conditions between regions. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.


More than 90% of the population in Turkey is muslim people. Even islam is the official religion in Turkey it is a secular and a democratic country so people are free to decide their religion.

Normally in islam women have to get covered but in Turkey since 1926 it is their own choice. So as you travel around Turkey you can see both covered and uncovered women.

There are also non-muslim people like Christians, Jewish living in Turkey and have right to perform their religions since there are many churches and synagogues.

In recent years, Turkey has become a major tourist destination in Europe. With the rapid development of both summer and winter resorts, more and more people from around the world are able to enjoy the history, culture, and beautiful sites of Turkey. From swimming in the Mediterranean to skiing in Uludag, Turkey has something to offer every tourist.

This plays a very important role in the Turkish economy. The main crops are wheat, rice, cotton, tea, tobacco, hazelnuts, and fruit. Sheep are Turkeys most important livestock, and Turkey is one of the major cotton and wool producers.

Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP):
GAP is a multi-purpose, integrated development project comprising of dams, hydroelectric power plants and irrigation facilities currently being built on the Firat (Euphrates) and Dicle (Tigris) rivers. It will effect agriculture, transportation, education, tourism, health and other sectors. ATATURK DAM, included in the project, is among the first 10 dams in the world.

Natural resources:
The principal minerals extracted are coal, chrome (an important export), iron, copper, bauxite, marble and sulfide.

Industry is developing rapidly and is directed mainly towards the processing of agricultural products, metallurgy, textiles, and the manufacture of automobiles and agricultural machinery.

Famous Landmarks:
Istanbul, Ayasofya Museum, Topkapi Palace, Blue Mosque, Dolmabahce Palace, Ancient City of Troy, Ephesus, House of Virgin Mary, Seven Churces, Aphrodisias, Pergamon, Pamukkale, Goreme, Cappadocia, Mt. Nemrut, Safranbolu, Trabzon, Antalya, Alanya, Perge, Aspendos, Side, Priene, Miletus, Didyma.

The most important income for Turkey is agriculture. 27% of national income is out of this industry. The main crops are wheat, olive, cereals, rice, cotton, tea, tobacco and fruit. Turkey is the one of the major cotton and wool producer.

Because of its landscape, historical sights and natural beauties Turkey attracts many people in the world. 15-20 % of external commerce income is out of tourism.

Natural Sources:
Iron, coal, chrome, copper, sulphur, bauxite, marble are the main natural sources in Turkey.

Turkey produces big amount of cotton and sheep are the most important livestock. Since there is enough material and labor is low in Turkey it becomes attractive for many big textile companies.



Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea and archipelago are to the west; the Black Sea is to the north. Separating Anatolia and Thrace are the Marmara Sea and the Turkish Straits (the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles), which define the border between Asia and Europe, thereby making Turkey transcontinental.

Due to its strategic location astride two continents, Turkeys culture has a unique blend of Eastern and Western tradition. A powerful regional presence in the Eurasian landmass with strong historic, cultural and economic influence in the area between Europe in the west and Central Asia in the east, Russia in the north and the Middle East in the south, Turkey has come to acquire increasing strategic significance.
Turkey is a big and rich country with full of history, nature, beaches, mountains and modern cities. We would like to let you know about the most popular destinations in Turkey:
Cappadocia is a place located central of Turkey. One hour away from Istanbul by plane and ten hours by bus. Unique in the world, cappadocia is a miraculous natural wonder consisting of the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in Central Anatolia.
-Ephesus is the most well-known ancient Greco-Roman city in Turkey. Located very near the Aegean coast and Izmir, it is an hour flight from Istanbul or ten hours by bus. The closest places to stay for ephesus are the small towns of Sirince, a beautiful mountain village, Selcuk, or Kusadasi. We highly reccomend a visit.
Pamukkale (Denizli), which means cotton castle, was formed over time by the natural hot springs, rich in calcium and carbonate, that flow down the slopes. Located in southern Turkey, a one hour flight or a ten hour bus ride brings you here from Istanbul.
-Antalya, in addition to its tourist friendly beaches, the city of antalya features the largest ampitheater(Aspendos) in Turkey, which is still in use today for concerts. Kaleici, the old section of town built around a thirtheenth fortress, features boutique hotels, delicious restaurants, and activities for everyone.
Konya, the home of Celaleddin-i Rumi (also known as Mevlana), is located in Central Anatolia. The Mevlana Mausoleum is a must see.
Fethiye (Blue Lagoon) , known as blue lagoon, has the best shores on the Mediterranean, . If you care on sea, sand, and sun this is a to be visited place with its historical sites as well.
Bursa has been the first capital of the Ottoman Empire. As to me you can also call it a reflection of Istanbul, also providing the most reputable ski centers of the country.
Canakkale… The Dardanelles… This place has always been very special in the world history, and very dominant in every times. Troy will surely mean something to you, wont it?
-Safranbolu is a great architectural heritage of the Ottoman era… A living ancient town of Karabuk province.
Trabzon. Here, at the heart of the Blacksea region you can witness all the beauties of the northern part of the country, as well as Sumela Monastery located in the Altyndere National Park which dates back to the 4th century.
Agri is Turkeys most eastern district, the border crossing to Iran. Dogubeyazit, having a rich history, going back over than 2700 years to the times of the Kingdom of Urartu, and Ishak Pasha Palace, as well as Mount Ararat with the highest peak of all Anatolia (5,137 metres , 16,854 ft) will be your reasons for your visit.
Kars had its own dynasty of Armenian rulers and was the capital of a region known as Vanand. For some time in late 10th century, before it was replaces with Ani, it has been the capital of the region. This is where the Church of the Apostles was built too…
– Van, The modern city is located on the plain extending from the Lake Van, at a distance of 5 kilometers from the lake shore. It has often been called “The Pearl of the East” because of the beauty of its surrounding landscape.
Urfa, Modern Sanliurfa presents stark contrasts between its old and new quarters. The old town is one of the most evocative and romantic in Turkey, with an ancient bazaar still visited by local people to buy fruit and vegetables, where traditionally dressed and scarfed Arab and Kurdish villagers arrive in the early morning to sell their produce
Mardin is a city in southeastern Turkey. The capital of Mardin Province, it is known for its Arab-style architecture, and for its strategic location on a rocky mountain overlooking the plains of northern Syria.
Harran also known as Carrhae, is a district of Sanliurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey.
Antakya is a provincial capital still of considerable importance as the centre of a large district, growing in wealth and productiveness with the draining of Lake Amik.
Amasya is the administrative district of Amasya Province in northern Turkey. It covers an area of 1730 km², and the population is 133,000, of which 74,000 live in the city and the remainder in surrounding villages. Altitude is 411 m.
Edirne is a city in Thrace, the most western part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. It is the capital of Edirne Province
-Assos has different characteristics throughout the four seasons… It is ideal for those seeking silence and tranquility with its unspoiled nature and very clean air.

Egirdir is a nice city that is partly built along the shore of the lake that carries its name, partly on an outcrop stretching into the lake and connected by a road to some small islands.

Geographical Regions of Turkey

Turkey is composed of 7 geographical regions :

1. Marmara Region

Provinces: Balikesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Canakkale, Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Tekirdag, Yalova
Sights: Iznik (Nicaea), Thrace, Troy, Dardanelles, Abydos, Alexandria Troas

The Marmara Region occupies the northwest corner of the country and represents 8.5% of the total area of Turkey with its 67.000 square kilometers of land. Being a point of juncture between Europe and Asia, this area has seen thousands of tribes and their civilizations passing through, from one continent to the other.

As the core of this background, the famous city of Istanbul stands, with all its magnificence, and signs from its far-reaching past. It has such a location that it constitutes not only a city of history, but also one of natural beauty beyond example. Extending on the two sides of the Bosphorus bordered by green groves, it also possesses beautiful shores along the internal Marmara Sea. Facing the city there exists small, pretty islands, adorning this big sea, lying in the middle of the region. The sea features the land in that the climatic characteristics of the Black Sea influencing the north of it, is separated from the typical Mediterranean climate prevailing in its south. Rainfall is high enough to facilitate growing a variety of fruits, while snowfall enlivens the winter holidays.

Uludag, one of the main peaks of Turkey, is the most prominent mountain in this region, and one of the most popular ski-resorts with every kind of convenience provided. At the foot of Mount Uludag, “Green” Bursa is located, with its dense forests covering the mountains and wide meadows, which give it its title. It is another center of historical importance, its rich past being kept alive in its mosques and tombs of wonderful architectural design. Ancient Iznik (Nicea) is the same, as is the charming city of Edirne which is on Thrace, the European side of Turkey.

There aren’t much altitudes in Marmara region so low altitude valleys and plateaus occupy a great percentage of the area. There are some important rivers and lakes within the region. Bordering Greece and Bulgaria, the land in Thrace is covered by wide fields of sunflowers and vineyards, while olive groves are found extending all over the region, like the gardens in Balikesir on the Anatolian side. Amongst agricultural products growing in the region we can count wheat, sunflower, corn, sugar beads, rice, olives and vineyards. About 73% of sunflower production and 30% of corn production of Turkey comes from Marmara region. In the same district there is a special spot nearby a broad lake: the National Park of “Kus Cenneti” (Bird Paradise) which is a bird sanctuary sheltering birds of over two hundred species.

Because of its close location to Europe, being on the Trans-European motorway (TEM), existence of Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits as a passage from Black Sea to Aegean Sea, ports on the Black Sea and Aegean Seas, and many other advantageous factors make this region heavily advanced in industry, commerce, tourism and transportation. Main industrial establishments are on the Istanbul – Bursa – Kocaeli triangle producing especially processed food, textile, cement, paper, petrochemical products, automotive, house furniture, leather and ship construction.

2. Agean Region

Provinces: Afyon, Aydin, Denizli, Izmir, Kutahya, Manisa, Mugla, Usak

Sights: Aphrodisias, Assos, Bodrum (Halicarnassus), Caunos, Cesme, Datca, Cnidos, Ephesus, Foca (Phokaia), Kusadasi, Claros, Tripolis, Labranda, Lagina, Marmaris, Nyssa, Pamukkale (Hierapolis), Laodicea, Colossae, Pergamum, Priene, Miletus, Didyma, Magnesia, Sardis, Teos (Sigacik), Pygale, Aizanoi, Apameia

Turkey’s Aegean shores are among the loveliest landscapes in the country. The magnificent coastline, lapped by the clear water of the Aegean Sea, abounds in vast and pristine beaches surrounded by olive groves, rocky crags and pine woods. Dotted with idyllic fishing harbors, popular holiday villages and the remains of ancient civilizations attesting to the inheritance of more than 5,000 years of history, culture and mythology, this region offers a holiday with something for everyone – nature lovers, sun worshippers, photographers, sports enthusiasts, sailors and archaeologists. Along the whole length of the coast, accommodations to suit every taste and price range can be found.

The Aegean coastal plain enjoys an exceptionally mild climate, with soft, verdant springs, hot summers, sunny autumns and warm winters marked by occasional showers. Aegean region has perpendicular mountains to its shores and many valleys between them, thus permitting the sea climate reach inner parts of the region, although some of the provinces inland show also characteristics of Continental climate. For sunbathing and water sports, the summer months are ideal; for exploring the ancient ruins and picturesque countryside, spring and autumn are the most inviting months. The Aegean provides the perfect escape from the rigors of a northern winter: even in January and February, the days are sunny and pleasant.

The region occupies 11% of the total area of Turkey with its 79.000 square kilometers of land. Most of the population and cities are concentrated on the coast line because of its convenience for sea transportation and tourism. The Aegean region is also both industrialized and agriculturalized. Main products are; textile, leather, carpet weaving, food, machinery and spare parts, marble, tobacco, sugar, olive and olive oil. About half of the total olive trees of Turkey are in this region. There are many important rivers feeding the Aegean Sea.

Izmir, the gateway to the Aegean region, is connected to Istanbul by frequent air, sea, bus and train connections. The plane flight is about 50 minutes, while comfortable overnight buses reach Izmir in about seven hours. Convenient train connection can be made from the Istanbul – Bandirma fast ferry, a two-hour ride across the Marmara Sea. A private maritime company operates over-night car ferries from Istanbul to Izmir a couple of times a week. There are also sea connections between Ancona (Italy) to Cesme in the summer and autumn months. By private car, Izmir can be reached via Bursa road or via Canakkale coastal road. For travelers wishing to begin their journey further to the south, the Dalaman airport near Marmaris is served by regularly scheduled and charter airlines. Self-drive car rentals can be arranged for pick-up at the airport.

3. Mediterranean Region 

Provinces: Adana, Antalya, Burdur, Hatay, Isparta, Kahramanmaras, Mersin, Osmaniye

Sights: Demre (Myra), Fethiye (Telmessos), Kas, Kalkan, Aperlai, Isinda, Patara, Xanthos, Letoon, Pinara, Tlos, Arycanda, Sidyma, Kekova, Simena, Olympos, Chimaera, Phaselis, Termessos, Selge, Perge, Aspendos, Side, Alanya, Hamaxia, Pisidian Antioch, Sagalassos, Iskenderun
Mediterranean region takes its name from the Mediterranean Sea, and occupies 15% of the total area of Turkey with its 120.000 square kilometers of land. West and Mid-Taurus mountains run parallel to the coast line. Because of high and steep mountains, the valleys between the sea and mountain range are very narrow, the width varies between 120-180 kilometers. There are some important rivers rising especially during the Spring when the snow is melting, and many lakes on the highlands with a great nature. The population is concentrated especially at the locations suitable for agriculture, tourism, industry and commerce.
The plains of this region are rich in agricultural resources. Fertile soils and a warm Mediterranean climate make the area ideal for growing citrus fruits and grapes, cereals and, in irrigated areas, rice and cotton. Summers are hot, and droughts are not uncommon. Other industrial and agricultural products of the area are wheat, barley, tobacco, green houses and carpet weaving, aluminum and steel. 80% of total of Turkey’s oranges and mandarins are grown here, meanwhile bananas are specific only to this region.

The plains around Adana are largely reclaimed flood lands. In the western part of the region, rivers have not cut valleys to the sea; movement inland therefore is restricted. The backland is mainly karst and rises sharply from the coast to elevations of up to 2,800 meters. There are few major cities along this coast, but the triangular plain of Antalya is extensive enough to support the rapidly growing city and port of the same name, which is an important trading center.

4. Black Sea Region 

Provinces: Amasya, Artvin, Bartin, Bayburt, Bolu, Corum, Duzce, Giresun, Gumushane, Karabuk, Kastamonu, Ordu, Rize, Samsun, Sinop, Tokat, Trabzon, Zonguldak

Sights: Bithynia, Pontus, Safranbolu

Northern Anatolian region along the Black Sea occupies 18% of the total area of Turkey with its 141.000 square kilometers of land. This northern coastal region has a steep and rocky coast, and rivers cascade through gorges of the coastal ranges. A few of the large rivers, those cutting back through the Pontus Mountains (Dogu Karadeniz Daglari), have tributaries that flow in broad, elevated basins. Access inland from the coast is limited to a few narrow valleys, and, as a result, the coast has always been isolated from the interior. The population and cities are concentrated along the coast line.

The narrow coastal ribbon running between Zonguldak and Rize, widening here and there into fertile deltas, is an area of concentrated cultivation. All available areas, including mountain slopes wherever they are not too steep, are put to use. The mild, damp climate favors commercial farming, thus making the region heavily forested and rich in fauna and flora with over 7.000 species of plants. Fishing, coal, nuts and tea growing are the major sources for local economy. Other important agricultural products are; corn, kiwi, rice, beans and potatoes. The western part of this region also hosts much of Turkey’s heavy industry

5. Central Anatolia Region 

Provinces: Ankara, Aksaray, Cankiri, Eskisehir, Karaman, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas, Yozgat

Sights: Cappadocia, Tuz Lake, Catalhoyuk, Gordion (Gordium), Hattusas, Phrygia and the Phrygians
Although termed a plateau, this region is actually quite diverse. Stretching inland from the Aegean, it occupies the area between the two zones of folded mountains, extending east to the point where the two mountain ranges converge. Central Anatolian region occupies 19% of the total area of Turkey with its 151.000 square kilometers of land, it’s the second largest region of Turkey after Eastern Anatolia.
The plateau-like, arid highlands of Anatolia are considered the heartland of the country. Akin to the steppes of the Soviet Union, the region varies in altitude from 600 to 1,200 meters west to east, averaging 500 meters in elevation. The two largest basins on the plateau are the Konya Ovasi and the basin occupied by Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake). Both are characterized by inland drainage. Wooded areas are confined to the northwest and northeast, and cultivation is restricted to the areas surrounding the neighboring rivers where the valleys are sufficiently wide. Irrigation is practiced wherever water is available; the deeply entrenched river courses make it difficult to raise water to the surrounding agricultural land, however. For the most part, the region is bare and monotonous and is used for grazing.
Rainfall is limited and in Ankara amounts to less than 25 centimeters annually. Wheat and barley are the most important crops, but the yields are irregular, and crops fail in years of drought. 1/3 of the total wheat of Turkey comes from this region. Other important crops in the region are potatoes, beans, chickpeas and lentils.
Stock raising also is important, but overgrazing has caused soil erosion in the plateau, and during the frequent summer dust storms a fine yellow powder blows across the plains. In bad years, stock losses are severe, and locusts occasionally ravage the eastern area in April and May. An area of extreme heat and virtually no rainfall in summer, the Anatolian plateau Continental climate is cold in winter and receives heavy, lasting snows. Villages may be isolated by severe snow storms.

Carpet weaving is another important income for small villagers, especially in Cappadocia and Konya.

6. Eastern Anatolia Region

Provinces: Agri , Ardahan, Bingol, Bitlis, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Hakkari, Igdir, Kars, Malatya, Mus, Tunceli, Van

Sights: Mount Ararat, Akdamar, Ani site, Van Lake, Tigris

Eastern Turkey, where the Pontus and Taurus Mountains converge, is rugged country with higher elevations, a more severe climate, and greater precipitation than on the Anatolian plateau. The average elevation of the peaks is greater than 2,000 meters. Mount Ararat is located in this area. Many of the peaks are extinct volcanoes that have been active in the recent past, as evidenced by widespread lava flows. Eastern Anatolian is the largest region of Turkey occupying 21% of the total area of the country with its 163.000 square kilometers of land.

From the highlands in the north, sometimes called Turkey’s Siberia, to the mountain ranges in the south that descend toward the Mesopotamian plain in Iraq, vast stretches of this eastern region consist only of wild or barren wasteland. Fertile basins, such as the Mus Valley west of Lake Van and various river corridors, lie at the foot of the lofty ranges. The winters are very harsh with lots of snow, blocking roads to small villages for several months. Because of the harsh climate and high mountains, the population and habitat not dense.

Stockbreeding is the major income for the local economy. Agriculture is very limited with wheat, barley, cotton and tobacco. The region has highest unemployment rate in Turkey.

7. Southeastern Anatolia Region 

Provinces: Adiyaman, Batman, Diyarbakir, Gaziantep, Kilis, Mardin, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sirnak

Sights: Commagene, Nemrut Dag (Mount Nemrut), Hasankeyf, Zeugma, Gobeklitepe
This region is geographically the smallest region of Turkey representing only 9.7% of the total area of Turkey with its 75.000 square kilometers of land certainly not that small with respect to natural and historical beauties it possesses. This region of ancient cities, is adorned by attractive natural figures, constituting a real mixture of sights and past combined with originality. Thanks to GAP (Southeastern Anatolian Project) the area is having great changes positively; many farming lands and dam lakes were formed lately with this project.
Valleys and Plateaus occupy large areas in the south of southeast Taurus mountains. Central part is very mountainous and eastern part is generally flat. Long summers are very hot and dry, with high evaporation, winters are cold and rainy. Although mountainous areas are affected by Continental climate, western part shows typical characteristics of Mediterranean climate.
Southeastern Anatolia is the only region of Turkey where the country produces some oil. The economy is based also on stockbreeding and agriculture, main crops and products are; wheat, barley, lentil, tobacco, cotton, and pistachio nuts.
Situated on the broad plain of upper Mesopotamia, Sanliurfa is one of these points, once being a city of 1001 nights and camel caravans. Then comes Diyarbakir with its wonderful architectural designs dates back to the Middle Ages. Here is the Malabadi Bridge presenting a peaceful view, besides the Dicle Bridge over the Tigris (Dicle) river. Another famous river, the Euphrates (Firat), flows through Harran, a wonderful place to see with its ancient city walls and castle.

Throughout this region a special atmosphere exists, one uniquely different from other parts of the country. Thus, reflecting a specific life style over its land, Southeastern Anatolia offers a wide variety of opportunities for its visitors. If you especially want to escape from a “sun – sea – sand” holiday, you should explore this region and live out of ordinary days in very distinguished places.

Where to visit in Turkey?

Istanbul, along the Bosphorus, connecting Asian contnent to European continent is the only city in the world which was the capital of three big empires : Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire.

What to see in Istanbul? 
Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, Basilic Cistern, Topkapi Palace, Hippodrome, Dolmabahce Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, Istanbul Archeology Museum, Chora Museum, Mosaic Museum, Turkish and Islamic Art Museum, Istanbul Modern, Galate Tower, Leander Tower,Taksim, Ortaköy, Gulhane Parc, Balat.









Why do we

Istanbul Incoming Tours understands that individual travelers like to create their own itineraries, choose their own schedules, and decide on their hotels in Istanbul, Ephesus, Cappadocia, Troy, Bursa, Gallipoli, Pamukkale ( Cotton Valley ). With Istanbul Incoming Tours, nothing is impossible. Choose from over 650 flexible itineraries covering every corner of Turkey from Istanbul, Cappadocia, Kusadasi, Pamukkale, Antalya, Bodrum, Kemer, Marmaris, Ankara, Izmir, to Nemrut mountain (Eastern Turkey). Combine them to create an itinerary to suit you & your family. So whether you are in Turkey for a layover, mini-vacation, extended holiday, or pre/post of an incentive programme or event held in Turkey that you are participating.

Istanbul Incoming Tours is one of the major A-class independent agency and the member of Association of Turkish Travel Agencies. (The daily excursions, individual and flexiable vacations, hotel bookings, Anzac Tours, Students Tours, Blue Cruise, Tour series, Holiday Packages, Rent A Car,bus and flight tickets to all destinations in Turkey) are provided so as to meet the needs and demands of our guests. We tap into our resources in the field to provide travel experiences that are authentic, engaging and meaningful. Come and feed your Istanbul Incoming Tours with us.